ZeroAccess is a large sophisticated botnet whose modular design allows new "modules" to be downloaded on demand. Typically each module corresponds to a particular scam used to monetize the platform. However, while the structure and behavior of the ZeroAccess platform is increasingly well-understood, the same cannot be said about the operation of these modules. In this report, we fill in some of these gaps by analyzing the "auto-clicking" and "search-hijacking" modules that drive most of ZeroAccess's revenue creation. Using a combination of code analysis and empirical measurement, we document the distinct command and control protocols used by each module, the infrastructure they use, and how they operate to defraud online advertisers.
The authors of these documents have submitted their reports to this technical report series for the purpose of non-commercial dissemination of scientific work. The reports are copyrighted by the authors, and their existence in electronic format does not imply that the authors have relinquished any rights. You may copy a report for scholarly, non-commercial purposes, such as research or instruction, provided that you agree to respect the author's copyright. For information concerning the use of this document for other than research or instructional purposes, contact the authors. Other information concerning this technical report series can be obtained from the Computer Science and Engineering Department at the University of California at San Diego, firstname.lastname@example.org.
[ Search ]